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Cellphones Spam Apple

Gaming the App Store 217

Posted by kdawson
from the burning-your-knees-on-astroturf dept.
space_in_your_face writes "Want to boost the popularity of your latest iPhone app? Ask Reverb Communications! 'When it comes to winning in the App Store, this PR firm has discovered a dynamite strategy: throw ethics out the window. Reverb Communications, a PR firm that represents dozens of game publishers and developers, has managed to find astounding success on Apple's App Store for its clients. Among its various tactics? It hires a team of interns to trawl iTunes and other community forums posing as real users, and has them write positive reviews for their client's applications. ... Reverb claims that their clients have sold over $2 billion of product under their watch.'"
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Gaming the App Store

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  • Astroturf... (Score:5, Insightful)

    by Moof123 (1292134) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:27PM (#29193735)

    When in doubt, lie, cheat, and steal. Strong ethics and morales will get you nowhere in this world kids.

    • Re:Astroturf... (Score:5, Insightful)

      by davidphogan74 (623610) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:29PM (#29193765) Homepage
      It happens to everything from hotels to restaurants to ISP's. Why not for the App Store?
      • Re: (Score:2, Interesting)

        by Anonymous Coward

        What's even funnier is that our cynicism ensures they will keep on doing business as usual. /metacynicism

      • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

        by wealthychef (584778)
        It happens to everything from hotels to restaurants to ISP's. Why not for the App Store?

        Because you can only review an app on the iTunes store that you have purchased -- this is enforced by the program and I don't know a way around it. So it would cost more per review than per app -- expensive advertising, I would think.

        • by poetmatt (793785)

          Not really. 10 thousand sales of an app at 2 dollars vs paying maybe a grand for the people to give you those good reviews where you might have made 500 bucks?

          Really, the people writing the reviews get better guaranteed cash, but you know, people will gamble for anything.

      • Re:Astroturf... (Score:5, Interesting)

        by The Qube (749) on Wednesday August 26, 2009 @12:51AM (#29197185)
        You only have to do that if you have a low-quality product. My app, Virtual Cricket [virtualcricket.mobi], competes in a reasonably crowded segment (cricket scores, push alerts etc) and competes against some pretty heavy competition (ESPN, BSkyB etc).

        However, I have a quality product and it was recognised as such by Apple who selected the app as the featured app in the App Store. This did more for my sales than spamming online forums etc.

        Lesson: quality wins in the end.
    • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

      Strong ethics and morales will get you nowhere in this world kids.

      This appears to partially depend on (1) where you want to go and (2) what industry you are traveling in.

      Sometimes, strong ethics and morals (not morales :) ) are necessary to get anywhere.

      • Re: (Score:2, Insightful)

        by Anonymous Coward
        Where? No seriously, where? Is there any situation where an ability to fake strong ethics and morals is not equivalent?

        Sure, nobody respects the obvious ambulance-chasing lawyer, but smarter lawyers can be plenty unethical and still look good to most everyone.

        Also: the White House, circa 2001-2008. 'Nuff said.
        • Re: (Score:3, Interesting)

          Ah, yes. There was corruption in government in the years 2001 to 2008. 1992 to 2000 and 2008-???, on the other hand, are free from corruption...

          Anyway, politics aside; yes, the ability to fake ethics and morals works pretty well, I suppose. But morals and ethics definitely help when dealing with services. For example, if I run a home-computer-repair thing, I am guessing most of my customers are going to think much more highly of me if I am moral and ethical when I deal with them, try to get them good ra

    • by LaskoVortex (1153471) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:37PM (#29193877)

      When in doubt, lie, cheat, and steal. Strong ethics and morales will get you nowhere in this world kids.

      Yes, this is true. At Petroleum Conglomerate (R), a friendly family owned company I know of, they have the strongest ethics. I think they are a real model that other companies should follow, with a strong core of values and a clear mission to improve the world through intelligent energy solutions. This is in stark contrast to the public image some would have you believe. In fact, they have teamed with Tobacco International (R) and with Weapons Systems Technological (R) to donate a percent of their proceeds to charities. I even heard that they are all having a 20% off sale until the end of the month. I know I'm going to order some oil, smokes, and a STA missile right now! You should too! (Offer may not be valid in all areas.)

      • by QuoteMstr (55051)

        You know, it's sad, but companies like that used to exist. Consider Kodak building Rochester, NY from basically nothing into the thriving city it is today. I swear, half the buildings in that city are named after them. They did a world of good.

        No more, though. Now business schools teach sociopathy.

        • by ae1294 (1547521)

          No more, though. Now business schools teach sociopathy.

          Sociopathy 101... I, like it... It has this really nice ring to it.... I think I'll just go ahead and take it!

          Muhahahaha

      • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

        by nametaken (610866)

        I know I'm going to order some oil, smokes, and a STA missile right now! You should too!

        I am so fucking down with that plan.

    • Re: (Score:3, Funny)

      Especially when it comes to advertising to isheep. These will eat up anything that will give them better social status, even if its just for a day and they can feel better then their other isheep cohorts.

      • they can feel better then their other isheep cohorts.

        What did their other iSheep cohorts do? I'm waiting. What exactly did their other iSheep cohorts do after the first set were able to feel better? Please finish the fucking sentence, it's very frustrating when you leave us hanging like this.

        Perhaps the iSheep know the difference between then and than. You see everybody has a fault and knowing that you know also makes you feel better than your other language abusing cohorts.
    • by dgatwood (11270)

      I don't know who this Mr. Ethics is, but Mr. Morales [wikipedia.org] is moving up in the world....

    • absolutely true. and my heart knows its so wrong for humanity.
    • by phoomp (1098855)
      And, there is nothing remotely new in this. Marketing agencies have had paid actors posing as real customers for ever. Most of Apple's "Switchers" were paid to say so. All of Microsoft's laptop shoppers were paid to choose a laptop running Windows and complain about Apple.
    • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

      by joocemann (1273720)

      When in doubt, lie, cheat, and steal. Strong ethics and morales will get you nowhere in this world kids.

      This world is focused on capitalism. Lying, cheating, and stealing are definitely a byproduct of putting money over community and people as a whole.

      Yes.. they work. I see it every day when I turn on cspan.

  • Yeah (Score:2, Interesting)

    by sexconker (1179573)

    This will last.
    We all know how Apple likes to have others in any sort of control over the App Store.

  • Not news (Score:5, Insightful)

    by riceboy50 (631755) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:27PM (#29193747)
    Companies have been doing this at other places, like Amazon.com, for years. Buyers beware.
    • It could be illegal. (Score:5, Interesting)

      by Albert Schueller (143949) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:35PM (#29193847) Homepage

      "Among its various tactics? It hires a team of interns to trawl iTunes and other community forums posing as real users, and has them write positive reviews for their client's applications."

      Just so we're all clear, this is already illegal. If they are engaging in this kind of activity, then it's just a law enforcement issue.

    • Re:Not news (Score:5, Funny)

      by brkello (642429) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:50PM (#29194017)
      Wait, what??? You mean my Three Wolf Moon T-shirt really won't score me any dates? Should I cancel my Zubaz pants as well?
      • by Chyeld (713439)

        Of course not, everyone knows you need the concentrated meme power of a Three Keyboard Cat Moon [threadless.com] shirt if you want to pull in the hotties.

        • by ae1294 (1547521)

          Like, OMG! I gotta get one of those... thank you soo much for sharing your buying experience with us... We need help getting rid of all this dirty money.... I here it all has cocaine on it! I mean ICK!

    • Re:Not news (Score:5, Interesting)

      by RiotingPacifist (1228016) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:51PM (#29194041)

      I never got why amazon didn't limit reviews to people who had bought the book, (while it doesn't stop this it makes it a more costly business, I find it particularly surprising that a company with as much control over their system as apple don't limit reviews to app purchasers.

      • by jpmorgan (517966) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @06:21PM (#29194423) Homepage
        That's not really going to stop an unscrupulous publisher or author. Let's say you want to astroturf Amazon a hundred times... so you buy your book a hundred times. That costs what... $1000-$2000? That's dirt cheap advertising. And if you get your royalties on the book sale and you get a copy of the book, which you can then sell back through Amazon again.

        Meanwhile, a bunch of people who have bought your book, and would like to write about how much it stinks, can't. Because they bought it at a normal book store.
        • by Kjella (173770)

          What if you need to have a purchase history of different books from different publishers? Yeah, it's also limiting the pool of reviewers but it'd also raise the cost of astroturfing.

        • Re: (Score:3, Interesting)

          by the_humeister (922869)

          Hmmm... sounds like something that happened with L. Ron Hubbard's books and his followers.

      • by centuren (106470)

        I never got why amazon didn't limit reviews to people who had bought the book, (while it doesn't stop this it makes it a more costly business, I find it particularly surprising that a company with as much control over their system as apple don't limit reviews to app purchasers.

        1) If someone is abusing reviews and ratings to harm a book's Amazon reputation, the author affected will likely contest and complain.

        2) If someone is abusing reviews and ratings to make a book look better on Amazon, more people will buy it, and Amazon has more sales.

        With the App store, 2 billion in sales is a lot of money for Apple. Why would they worry about such things unless there's a PR backlash?

      • by Chyeld (713439)

        Outside of buying it from them, how are they going to know you own the book? rip off the cover and mail it to them for authentication?

        And if they limit the reviews to just people who bought it from Amazon, how many reviews do you think there really will be?

      • Re:Not news (Score:5, Informative)

        by mybecq (131456) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @07:04PM (#29194849)

        I find it particularly surprising that a company with as much control over their system as apple don't limit reviews to app purchasers

        Apparently they started doing that in Feb 2009 [macrumors.com].

      • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

        by Jafafa Hots (580169)

        Amazon deletes legitimate unfavorable reviews. Why would you think they would care about the honesty of reviews? All they care about is sales. Fake positives are probably just fine with them.

      • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

        by Dhalka226 (559740)

        Amazon shouldn't restrict reviews. There's simply too many other places to buy books, music, appliances, etc etc and the reviews of those purchasers have the potential to be every bit as valid and useful as people who bought it directly from Amazon. Assuming that "didn't purchase from Amazon" means "didn't actually buy the product" is naive in that case.

        Apple, on the other hand, I agree with you on. So long as their system is so locked down that you basically can't buy things anywhere but through them,

  • by seanadams.com (463190) * on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:29PM (#29193769) Homepage

    seriously, what the hell?

  • So, cheating and lying to get ahead is news how?
    • by mgblst (80109)

      When you can prove it, then it becomes news. Just as now, we can prove that you are a moron, and if you were of the slightest bit of importance, we would expect to see you as a story on the front page soon.

  • Rockband? (Score:3, Funny)

    by spydabyte (1032538) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:34PM (#29193835)
    They "worked on" rockband [reverbinc.com]... I wondered why it had so many good reviews.
  • by Rabbitt (741607) * on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:34PM (#29193837) Homepage
    Personally, I find the 0 - 3 star ratings more telling about an app than the 4 or 5 star (fanboy) ratings. In general, when I want to find out about a product, I like to read the negative to moderate reviews because they seem to be more honest about potential problems. What do you guys think/do?
    • by CannonballHead (842625) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:36PM (#29193871)
      I think both. I find that the more specific they are about things I'm interested in, the more it turns out that's actually a good description about the product. Both negative and positive reviews can be faked for various reasons.
    • I concur. A lot of the 0 ratings are just as worthless though, particularly for free software. I usually read what the person has to say, though. A lot of the time the people who rate programs low are doing so because they're too cheap to buy the full version. They whine about the limited utility of the lite version.

      • When I look at Newegg reviews or the like, I like to read the 2-4 range. 1 star is usually consisting of dumbasses who expect every product to work flawlessly every time. "Oh I had to RMA this. Props to Newegg for fast RMA." 3 Dead parts, yes please write a negative review. If your first product was DoA wait until you actually use the damn thing to write a review.

        3's usually have a good mix of pros and cons, though I find some of the 4 star Newegg people are very articulate about why they rated 4 i
    • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

      by pak9rabid (1011935)

      I like to read the negative to moderate reviews because they seem to be more honest about potential problems. What do you guys think/do?

      I do that as well. I'd rather hear what people don't like about a product I'm interested in than what I already know I'll like about it.

    • by Anonymous Coward on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:44PM (#29193947)

      But suppose an app were absolutely perfect. Then what happens?

      To quote xkcd, "Somewhere out there is a company that has actually figured out how to enlarge penises, and it's helpless to reach potential customers."

    • by TheModelEskimo (968202) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:47PM (#29193975)
      What, you don't think they game 0 - 3-star ratings? That's delusional. They already caught on - you'll notice this a lot at Amazon, pay attention when you just sold yourself the book based on a low review. There are several tactics used, like "I bought it for (random-reason X) so IF you are in (really-small-niche X), DON'T BUY, it's meant for (as-written-on-label purpose Y)"
    • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

      by Jeff DeMaagd (2015)

      It's not so simple. The negative views could be given by people trolling for competitors.

      • by oGMo (379)
        Yeah but it's harder to come up with solid, verifiable negatives about a product. Since I primarily only care whether I can live with whatever downsides are present, negative "this sucks! i hate it!" reviews are worthless, while "this feature doesn't work as intended" I can do further research on and see whether this is a one-off case or common.
    • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

      I like to read some of the realistic sounding reviews at every level. The crazies go both ways, and as long as you can pick them out you can get a pretty good overview of the product.

      As nerdy as it is, I think the real reviews of a product tend to make a normal distribution (bell curve).

    • by tnk1 (899206) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @06:23PM (#29194445)

      Personally, I find the 0 - 3 star ratings more telling about an app than the 4 or 5 star (fanboy) ratings. In general, when I want to find out about a product, I like to read the negative to moderate reviews because they seem to be more honest about potential problems. What do you guys think/do?

      Some reviews are of a sort that you know the reviewer is simply happy to now own a program that does something in particular. They'll say something like: I LOVE Poker Player 2010 because I am now REALLY PLAYING POKER!!! These are generally useless. They offer no detail except the enthusiasm of the user for being able to actually use the program to get basic functionality out of it.

      There's other reviews that you know are AstroTurf. You can usually tell that they are "on-message" and scripted. The features that they "love" are the same features that are bullet points in the literature released by the developer. Sometimes they even put in some "warnings" but these "caveats" aren't really caveats, but rather rephrases of the disclaimers that you could have read in the Terms of Service or EULA anyway. For example:

      "This app is excellent in all possible ways, but in the interest of fairness I need to point out that, operating a vehicle while texting is bad!"

      On the other hand, there are idiots out there who will cut down a perfectly functional app simply because they had expectations for the app that were completely out of scale with what was even advertised, or even supported. This often happens also when the users demand features that there was really no reason to expect there to be in the first place.

      To get to the heart of the matter. Some people also feel the need to say something negative because they feel that they have to be "balanced". This sort of "balance" is not what you are looking for. You are looking for an approximation of the truth of people's experiences, not the image they are trying to present of their own fairness and sophistication.

      Do NOT ignore the 5 star ratings, just because of enthusiasm and turfers out there. A good app is going to get 5 star ratings and it will deserve it. The idea that a middling rating implies a better quality review means you' are generally too lazy to read all the reviews and think about them. If you apply the right criteria and your own skepticism to all reviews, you will get the right balance out of them, no matter what the rating. Ignoring good reviews in favor of middling ones means that you are letting the star level rate your expectations just as much as if you blindly accepted the 5-star ratings.

      In general, discard the astroturfers and perpetually angry fringe, and look for reviews that cover the functionality that you find important to you. Look for reviews that tell you what they did to get a certain result. I know of more than one cheap-ass app I have used in my life where if I used some obscure feature, it would crash, but as long as I never cared about that feature, the app worked beautifully for all I needed it to do. That app would certainly not be a 5-star, but it certainly might rate a 4-star from me if the rest of it was truly useful. More importantly, it was worth getting as long as I was aware of its Achilles' Heel.

    • by mgblst (80109)

      Personally, I love the one start ratings, that claim how great this app is. Those are the people who i trust.

    • by centuren (106470)

      Personally, I find the 0 - 3 star ratings more telling about an app than the 4 or 5 star (fanboy) ratings. In general, when I want to find out about a product, I like to read the negative to moderate reviews because they seem to be more honest about potential problems. What do you guys think/do?

      I think a lot of reviews on the 5 star and 1 star polar ends are given after a first impression. The product arrives, it works and is a new toy, the person is excited, 5 stars. Conversely, person can't get it to work immediately with their setup, 1 star. Neither are very useful, which is why I always wait to review a product until I've had it for a while (and unfortunately end up forgetting to do so most of the time).

      If I'm looking at reviews, chances are I'm looking for a product with specific things in mi

    • I remember when I was looking at reviews for my first hard drive DVD recorder before I bought it. One of the reviewers gave it a low rating on Amazon and the reason was something like, "when you set it to the lowest recording quality, the video looks terrible". And I read a c-net review that said the hard drive video camera I had did not have manual settings. I have the camera myself and I used the manual focus, white balance, and everything before. Yet another reviewer on Amazon gave a 1 star rating to the
  • ...I sense visits from the FTC and BBB in this company's future.
  • by shemp42 (1406965) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:36PM (#29193875)
    How is this new? This has been going on long before computers. The snake oil salesman used to do it all the time, they would have somone in the crowd claim fantastic results to sell something that was worthless. What you mean I can't believe every review posted about a product or application? Critical thinking.... what is that? Idiocracy is happening already, humankind is doomed!
    • Re: (Score:3, Interesting)

      Obviously, if an app has 10 lousy reviews and 200 near identical 5STAR++++WOUULDBUYAGAINs, it takes approximately the thinking skills of a wombat scientologist to figure out who the shills are.

      Assuming, though, a slightly more competent brand of shill, there isn't any magical "Critical thinking" that will allow you to distinguish between the real and the fake with any accuracy. You could fall back on the approach of just ignoring all feedback, and describing your nescience as "critical thinking"; but tha
  • by Locke2005 (849178) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:44PM (#29193945)
    Why not use the method L. Ron Hubbard's Bridge Communications used to keep Dianetics on the bestseller lists, and simply buy millions of copies of your own product?
  • App Store Optimization. If you pronounce the acronym right, it sounds like "asshole".
  • I put very little weight on either comments or ratings on the app store. I outright ignore 1 and 5 star ratings; the number of times I've seen comments raving about the app being the best in its category or whatever yet having a 1-star rating is ridiculous. Seriously how do you screw up understanding how a 5-star rating system works?

    Then we have mmorpg trolls leaving tons of 5 star comments with their character codes for alliances and such; waste of space and tells me Jack about the app itself.

    If a review i

  • by DoofusOfDeath (636671) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:51PM (#29194039)

    At least they're not apping the game store. I'm still paying off my legal bills.

  • by thestudio_bob (894258) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @05:59PM (#29194135)
    Obviously one of their interns is also a /. sumitter.
  • Gaming the app store is no worse than apping the game store...
  • It's interesting that the idea of shills hasn't been better represented in the Internet business model. The psychology behind shills and mob motivation and mob behaviour is advanced compared to Barnum's dictum that "there's a sucker born every minute" and the barkers and shills who worked his midway freak shows. The ideas contained in the submission are child's play compared to the opportunities for exploitation the Internet offers. Corporations are legal entities that play hide and seek with morality, ethi
  • by Hurricane78 (562437) <deleted@slashd o t .org> on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @06:05PM (#29194209)

    and it's an old hat with pretty much every professional marketing company. Either employees are asked to post things, or they hire some external people, like in this example.

    I have seen it, I have even been asked to do it*, and from what I know, it's pretty much an expected standard.
    Music, games, books, websites, other products, you name it...

    The only difference is, that real professional companies have a "don't ask, don't tell" policy about it, and the only person asking is your direct boss, in private.

    ___
    * and lied about actually doing it, like most people in the company at that time, because half the staff just got fired because of management incompetence

  • by harlows_monkeys (106428) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @06:10PM (#29194273) Homepage

    One thing I've noticed at the App Store is that a lot of perfectly fine apps get a lot of 1 star reviews for ridiculous reasons. For instance, a review might state that the app does what it claimed to do flawlessly, that it is useful, and the best app in the category--but the reviewer also wish it had feature X (which no other app has), and the reviewer then gives it just 1 star, apparently for this "missing" feature.

    This doesn't appear to be an isolated problem. Nearly every very good app I've downloaded has had a lot of these kind of negative reviews.

    I wonder if anyone is purposefully trying to game the store by posting negative reviews on competitors, too?

    • by iamflimflam1 (1369141) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @06:31PM (#29194529) Homepage
      Yes they do. My own app Sudoku Grab got a review from someone saying that a competing app was much better. Out of interest I checked to see what other apps this reviewer had reviewed.

      He'd reviewed 6 other competing apps, all of the reviews suggested that customers should buy this other app instead.

      There's not much you can do about it, just have to hope that customers are savvy enough to see through these marketing tricks.
  • Reverb would like to clarify a few items regarding the MobileCrunch story about our agency that ran this weekend. The article âoeCheating the App Storeâ is unfortunately full of emotion, logical holes and for the most part untrue. Here are the facts:

    1. The writer forgot that Reverb Communications is not just a public relations agency, but is also a sales and marketing agency. Reverbâ(TM)s marketing department has interns that do social viral marketing.

    2. Our interns do not post reviews on i

    • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

      by drinkypoo (153816)

      We do not have hundreds of accounts to âoetrawlâ through iTunes â" itâ(TM)s simply untrue. We have 10 staff members who choose to post on the games when and if they have played the game. We have to buy and play the game in order to have an opinion.

      (We do not, however, deny crowdsourcing people with their own iTunes accounts and giving them the software free in exchange for a positive review. We just won't mention any such obvious possibilities.)

      This same writer contacted several of our app store developers wanting negative comments from them regarding Reverb. They all gave positive feedback, but the writer left this aspect out of the story.

      ...because they're customers of the company, and of course they're happy, if it works, which doesn't cast any light on the scrupulousness or lack thereof of the whole operation.

    • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

      by Dan East (318230)

      3. 1 person=1 iTunes account=1 credit card. We do not have hundreds of accounts to âoetrawlâ through iTunes â" itâ(TM)s simply untrue. We have 10 staff members who choose to post on the games when and if they have played the game. We have to buy and play the game in order to have an opinion.

      Yes, but this does not apply to free games. Anyone who knows jack about the AppStore knows that it is the free ("lite") versions of the games that really drive traffic and game popularity. That is w

  • Aside from all the "MMORPG" games that turn out to be nothing but graphic skins over the exact same stupid mafia game; the most annoying thing is the way people will take the free crApps that they are trying to give away and bump the price up to $0.99 and back down to free to get it to hit peoples "Newly free" filters.

    There are decent apps that drop their price for a while, but seeing an app marked "Free" (which always means some weak broken version not worth downloading) as "On sale" is annoying.

    I'm pretty

  • Liars (Score:4, Insightful)

    by Toonol (1057698) on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @06:18PM (#29194385)
    Reverb claims that their clients have sold over $2 billion of product under their watch.

    I flatly don't believe them.

    Why would anybody hire them? Why would you believe and have dealings with a company whose product is explicitly stated as lying and deception?
  • I knew it was good idea to get a Android phone...

    *checks* ... crap, it seems this happens in the Android market too...

    If they are really naughty they would have those interns give competing apps a low rating, this is not something they would admit.
  • And why... (Score:3, Insightful)

    by thePowerOfGrayskull (905905) <marc,paradise&gmail,com> on Tuesday August 25, 2009 @08:33PM (#29195533) Homepage Journal
    And why are we helping by writing articles about it, and further advertising them on the front page slashdot?

    For every thousand people who read this and say "that's just wrong", there's one or two who says "Hmmm, interesting." And for every few dozen of those, there's an app developer that's saying "Maybe I should find out how much this costs."

Business is a good game -- lots of competition and minimum of rules. You keep score with money. -- Nolan Bushnell, founder of Atari

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