Catch up on stories from the past week (and beyond) at the Slashdot story archive

 



Forgot your password?
typodupeerror

Slashdot videos: Now with more Slashdot!

  • View

  • Discuss

  • Share

We've improved Slashdot's video section; now you can view our video interviews, product close-ups and site visits with all the usual Slashdot options to comment, share, etc. No more walled garden! It's a work in progress -- we hope you'll check it out (Learn more about the recent updates).

×
Apple

1976 Polaroids of an Apple-1 Resurface 120

Posted by timothy
from the instant-but-slow dept.
harrymcc writes "In 1976, Paul Terrell, owner of the Byte Shop in Mountain View, California, placed an order for 50 Apple-1 computers, becoming Apple's first dealer. Over at TIME.com, I've published three Polaroid snapshots of the Apple-1 which Terrell shot at the time. They're fascinating history, and it's possible they're the oldest surviving photos of Apple products."
This discussion has been archived. No new comments can be posted.

1976 Polaroids of an Apple-1 Resurface

Comments Filter:
  • by dadelbunts (1727498) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @03:20AM (#42080185)
    They are actually new photos with new instagram filters.
  • by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @03:25AM (#42080203)

    WTF is with these crappy Instagram photos! I am shocked, SHOCKED, that hipsters were ruining important photos this far back, this kind of nonsense must end.

  • Nice and orderly (Score:5, Insightful)

    by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @03:33AM (#42080221)

    Ahhh chips all nicely laid out, not crammed in. Bliss.

    • by Tablizer (95088) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @03:36AM (#42080233) Journal

      Now we have iCram

    • by jellomizer (103300) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @08:05AM (#42080933)

      However there comes a point where you need to add more chips and they expect the same size computer.

      • by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @09:33AM (#42081153)

        The original iPhone, probably even the very first prototype working with the underclocked ARM, has a processing speed at least --ball-parking-- five times faster than all the Apple I manufactured by Apple ever. At the retail level, we only get a few choices in buying a new computer from anywhere... limited sizes, limited configurations, limited classes of accessories, and makers obfuscate the actual processing power. I'd like to be able to give my specs (this processing power at this size, with only this software, these interfaces and accessories, and nothing superfluous) and have them filled by the available technology... not told what size or choice of 5 configurations of computer I am expecting as a customer. Office towers, the now iconic 2'x2'x6"(-ish) boxes taking up a considerable amount of office space... just... why? ... when something the size of an apple, the delicious fruit, can have the processing density needed to fulfill what most users strictly need. I wish the manufacturing brand giants would consider offering true custom ordering and dedicate resources to solving the obvious issues of massive amounts of distinct orders. (Who knows? What if, say, within a million custom orders, the configurations would all fall into some tangibly producible and profitable business paradigm... so now there might be 15 distinct configs offered, and it's discovered there's only 489 configurations of precisely what the customer exactly wants. It might make sense to be the first to tackle the 50 most desired configurations of those... and work towards profitably covering most of the kinds of custom orders that are made. The cost of complexities involved in making a massive fully custom shop efficient would be covered by the volume of orders stolen from other mass produced systems.

      • by timeOday (582209) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @11:53AM (#42081741)
        'Tis true. But the obsession with thin has gone too far IMHO. After "switching" to a MacBook Pro a couple years ago, I've just ordered a loaded-up Dell and am switching back. Partially this is because I need MS Office and the Mac version doesn't cut it for me, so I was always running a Windows VM anyways. But secondly, I wanted a swappable battery again. I wanted an expansion bay where I could put a second hard drive, or a second battery, or of course the CD ROM. I wanted a docking station (and weirdly the Thunderbolt still hasn't really provided equivalent options like I expected). Apple systems are just so integrated now that you can't reconfigure, upgrade, or repair them. (I do regret not getting to upgrade to a "retinal" display though. In fact the i7 processor, screen resolution, and 256 GB hardware-encrypted SSD on the Dell are all no better than I got on the Mac 2 years ago. Blah!)
    • by hairyfeet (841228) <bassbeast1968@gm ... UTom minus punct> on Saturday November 24, 2012 @12:06PM (#42081797) Journal

      Man...remember when ALL the boards were like that? Nice big boards, with big traces, everything was so damned easy to work on, its sooooo nice. Now they overpack the shit out of everything, you get even at ATX board where you think "Sure with THIS much space they won't cram" and NOPE, its cram city! Hell back in the day things started to look even slightly crammed it was daughterboard time, now you have to seriously watch 'em because the cramming makes it hell to insure that all the chips get decent airflow.

      As for TFA...meh, the Apple I was okay, but the Apple II was the one that ended up being sold years after everybody else moved on, simply because so damned much software and add-ons were made for it people still wanted the unit, now THAT is impressive, to have your second time at bat, against companies with a HELL of a lot more money and experience under their belts, and to knock it out of the park like that? This is why even though I have never cared for the locked down nature of later Apple I give the two Steves credit, they pulled off some shit back then that would frankly be impossible in this lawsuit heavy megacorp world, they built a fricking empire from a garage...now THAT is impressive.

      • Re:Nice and orderly (Score:4, Interesting)

        by mikael (484) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @07:02PM (#42083905)

        The old BYTE magazines from the 1970's and 1980's were wonderful reading. The Circuit Cellar guide to building your own home security system with a 20Amp klaxxon air raid siren in the basement. Reviews of the workstations (Next Cube), motherboards and graphics cards [uni-marburg.de] of the time. What goes into a single ASIC now, would go into a dozen little chips and a full-size daughter board. State of the art visual effect was a silhouette halo like in Xanadu.

        Had the chance to program 8-bit home computers like the Apple ][, Atari, BBC, and Atari ST. There were so many magazines out there, all giving program listings and information on building things like light pens, mini device drivers and games written in assembler. These days, you would get sued just for using a function call the wrong way.

      • by tlhIngan (30335) <slashdot@LAPLACEworf.net minus math_god> on Monday November 26, 2012 @12:33PM (#42094673)

        Man...remember when ALL the boards were like that? Nice big boards, with big traces, everything was so damned easy to work on, its sooooo nice. Now they overpack the shit out of everything, you get even at ATX board where you think "Sure with THIS much space they won't cram" and NOPE, its cram city! Hell back in the day things started to look even slightly crammed it was daughterboard time, now you have to seriously watch 'em because the cramming makes it hell to insure that all the chips get decent airflow.

        The reason you have to cram is high-speed signals. Back in the days of the Apple 1 where DRAM (Apple 1 was one of the first to use DRAM over SRAM), speeds were slow enough that signal integrity and such were plenty fast, and gate delays from buffers were negligible. (After all, the main memory bus didn't run that fast - 1-5MHz or so, which leaves quite a bit for open designs).

        These days with memory running at GHz speeds and expansion busses running that fast, trace lengths become extremely important, especially matching them. If you look closely, the match traces are also rounded curves, not sharp corners (which cause signal reflections).

        Spreading out the layout can often mean the bus has to run slower - not too big a problem for memory busses (slower memory is cheaper at slight cost to performance), but fixed speed buses like SATA, PCIe, USB3 and such often demand exacting impedances and trace length matching. And the clock can't be skewed too badly, either.

        You can easily tell how fast stuff runs by the density of components. Northbridge, CPU and RAM are only spaced out because of heatsink requirements otherwise they'd be crammed next to each other. Slow parts are located far far away.

  • And this is news? (Score:1, Insightful)

    by bogaboga (793279) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @03:34AM (#42080227)

    I mean...photos of one [famous] American company's early products? What has Slashdot become? Geez! Is this still news for nerds, stuff that matters? I guess I should post photos of earlier Motorola products, then claim space on Slashdot, right?

    • Re:And this is news? (Score:4, Informative)

      by macraig (621737) <mark.a.craigNO@SPAMgmail.com> on Saturday November 24, 2012 @03:55AM (#42080295)

      The author of the piece has a Slashdot account that he can use to submit and promote his own work, and at least one Slashdot staffer is willing to let him do it. Is that good or bad? McCracken apparently isn't an exceptionally shoddy writer, since he's been making a living at it for decades.

    • by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @04:04AM (#42080319)

      /. was a news aggregation site catering to geeks, now it's just a news spewing site that has a masterbatory relation ship with the NY Times, Time mag, Murdock etc.

    • Re:And this is news? (Score:3, Interesting)

      by macraig (621737) <mark.a.craigNO@SPAMgmail.com> on Saturday November 24, 2012 @04:09AM (#42080343)

      Very early Microsoft mouse [photobucket.com], with solid steel textured ball [photobucket.com] and steel bearings [photobucket.com] instead of Teflon slider pads.

      So maybe I can claim some space myself with these photos? I should probably de-BPA that housing (with the Oxiclean trick) and then enshrine it in a plexi case with a vacuum, huh?

    • by Savage-Rabbit (308260) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @04:14AM (#42080371)

      I mean...photos of one [famous] American company's early products? What has Slashdot become? Geez! Is this still news for nerds, stuff that matters? I guess I should post photos of earlier Motorola products, then claim space on Slashdot, right?

      In terms of the history of personal computing the Apple-1 and 2 are somewhat important. The same goes for the Motorola DynaTAC and MicroTAC series. If you are too young to appreciate the things that helped create the modern high-tech industry you take for granted you can always do something you perceive as being more important like going some place else to refight the Samsung-Google vs. Apple flame war for the umpteenth time and leave us old-timers to indulge in enjoyable recollection of times gone by.

      • by girlinatrainingbra (2738457) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @04:23AM (#42080387)
        Right, the Apple 1 is an important artefact. A store that bought 500 of them whole sale at $500 apiece to sell them for $666.66 apiece is also interesting. But seriously, just the "polaroid photos of the Apple 1" by themselves is not worthy of much, but surrounded by the facebook posting of these photos and a blog on the Time magazine website about these, well that just barely takes it up a millimeter above the floor level of being uninteresting.
        :>p
        Where's the tech aspect? Where's the nerd aspect? Did they have to do cool digital image restoration to recover theimages? Did the polaroids somehow help Apple make enough money off the Apple 1 to keep them afloat until they could build and sell the apple ][ and move on to fame? I don't see any more gnews for gnerds capacity in this story. Time to move on.... And it's not that I'm so young that I can't see the importance of this. My parents have a trs80 and a running apple ][ bought in 1977 and some punchcard programs with fortran watfor (what for? :) ) on it in the garage for play and giggles; so I do know about and appreciate the history of computing. But seriously, the title of this topic is "1976 Polaroids of an Apple-1 Resurface". Seriously. Sad. Seriously sad.
        • by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @05:44AM (#42080593)

          a is true because b is a fact therefore a is true which makes b a fact

          also what's your problem? if you want something more interesting on the front page, maybe you should contribute something more interesting. what I really expected from your (drunken?) rant was an alternative to the story. instead you just explained how your parents have computer stuff and you are not interested in pictures of an apple 1...isn't it sort of sad you took so many letters to convey that message?

        • by Savage-Rabbit (308260) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @05:49AM (#42080601)

          My parents have a trs80 and a running apple ][ bought in 1977 and some punchcard programs with fortran watfor (what for? :) ) on it in the garage for play and giggles; so I do know about and appreciate the history of computing. But seriously, the title of this topic is "1976 Polaroids of an Apple-1 Resurface". Seriously. Sad. Seriously sad.

          Your parents, right so that is how young you are. You should ask them why this stuff is important enough to them that they don't scrap it. Why do we keep old cars around and expend more money on restoring them than they are worth? To you computers seem to be something you take for granted a mundane item like a toaster.... which is fair enough if you are not a computer geek. If you are not a car geek I can see how you would be puzzled over people who think it is a sin to crush a 1950s Chevrolet concept car or one of only 51 model 1948 Tucker Sedans ever made to turn them into beer cars or sewer lids. To me these pictures are interesting, because I can remember when there were no PCs. I used to have to laboriously type essays on a IBM 'golfball' typewriter (you should try it, the keys are so stiff you literally have to 'punch' them with your fingers). Getting a computer, being able to make changes and correct mistakes and then print out a new copy was a huge labor saving. Then there were games, first 2D an then Doom, nobody had seen anything like it.... Now, before you get off my lawn, please remind me why are you here taking the piss out of old-timers over our nostalgia when you could be doing something more important like refight the Google-Samsung vs. Apple flamewar for the umpteenth time or convincing politicians that music wants to be free.

          • by girlinatrainingbra (2738457) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @06:06AM (#42080645)
            You're missing my point. And you're obviously misreading or misinterpreting what I am typing and saying. I'm agreeing that the Apple-1 is an important artefact and point out that there is a ][ and a trs-80 in the garage which i've turned on and played with. This posting is about the finding and "resurfacing" of a set of polaroid photos of this important artefact. There are already actual exemplars of this artefact extant; there are already full circuit diagrams and specs and emulators and re-makeover-replicas of the Apple-1 also in existence.
            .
            The photograph of an artefact does not carry the weight of the artefact itself, in my opinion. Now the DINAAO [slashdot.org] emulator (at dinaao.sourceforge.net is interesting and nerd-news worthy!!! I downloaded that, compiled it, played with it. An actual Apple-1 I can play with. A photograph of an Apple-1, well I can look at and talk about. And that's about all we're doing here.
          • by drinkypoo (153816) <martin.espinoza@gmail.com> on Saturday November 24, 2012 @10:55AM (#42081477) Homepage Journal

            Why do we keep old cars around and expend more money on restoring them than they are worth?

            Mu. I keep old cars around and expend less money on restoring them than they are worth, by resale value or by replacement value. If you have skills, you can do that.

        • by cjjjer (530715) <(moc.liamtoh) (ta) (rejjjc)> on Saturday November 24, 2012 @09:57AM (#42081279)

          Where's the nerd aspect?

          Clearly you are not a nerd if you have to ask that question.

    • by Sulphur (1548251) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @05:51AM (#42080605)

      I mean...photos of one [famous] American company's early products? What has Slashdot become? Geez! Is this still news for nerds, stuff that matters? I guess I should post photos of earlier Motorola products, then claim space on Slashdot, right?

      For the price of 1976 Polaroids you could have bought an Apple 1 back then (I suspect).

      --

      300 baud modem hacked. Top secret schematics online.

    • by Runaway1956 (1322357) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @05:57AM (#42080617) Homepage Journal

      Maybe some early Honda stuff. A 305 Dream would be good. Or, if you want something that was pretty high tech for it's time, check out the CX and GL 500's. Those twisted twins are still roaming the highways of the world, turning admiring heads everywhere they go. While they don't lead the pack while running through the twisties, a lot of young men on more modern bikes find that they can't get away from them either! Early computers? Crap - the wife has been nagging at me to get rid of all this old computer crap that is now almost worthless. Honda's stuff is still valuable!

      http://cgi.ebay.com/ebaymotors/Honda-Other-1978-Honda-CX500-/200851901404?pt=US_motorcycles&hash=item2ec3b4cbdc [ebay.com]

    • by jellomizer (103300) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @08:09AM (#42080945)

      Well we in the tech industry are no longer in what is new anymore. We have gotten old and everything new and exciting now is just a threat to our lively hood. Because instead of learning the new stuff, we look back with nostalgia glasses with the stuff of the past. Never mind how slow the systems were, and how the hardware would fail every few months, and software crashes were expected and common.

      • by adri (173121) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @02:39PM (#42082517) Homepage Journal

        Erm. Let me rephrase that.

        We in the tech industry realise that a significant amount of what is new is actually old, just faster and shinier. A lot of the concepts that people are exploring now were explored in the 1970's, then forgotten during the microcomputer revolution when the computing world fell inward, away from expensive networked multiprocessor machines with lots of shiny IO and inward into stand-alone, single-CPU devices with very cheap IO. It's now mass produced, really fast, very well connected.. but a lot of the concepts aren't new.

        Software and hardware is still failing, even today. Sheesh, at the risk of sounding inflammatory - anyone in the tech world would NOT make the argument that software and hardware is getting more reliable.

    • by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @08:21AM (#42080969)

      And where's the news that YOU'RE submitting, huh? Put up or shut up.

    • by Wovel (964431) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @10:29PM (#42084721) Homepage

      Someone at Time thought it was technology news too. Maybe it is just you.

  • by Tablizer (95088) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @03:35AM (#42080231) Journal

    Ahhh, look at the cute baby Apple

  • by zill (1690130) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @03:44AM (#42080257)
    1000 years from now, stuff in 1976 and 2012 will be pretty much equally old. Archaeologist will eventually files these photos with instantgram shots of brand new iPads.
  • by Stormwatch (703920) <`rodrigogirao' `at' `hotmail.com'> on Saturday November 24, 2012 @03:55AM (#42080293) Homepage

    Look at the old keyboard in the pic. It's a bit sad to realize that it was probably far better than Apple's current stuff, or the huge majority of modern keyboards. How have we fallen! Seriously: if you pay some big bucks for a high-end PC, it's unjustifiable not to get a mechanical keyboard as well.

  • by DNS-and-BIND (461968) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @04:11AM (#42080359) Homepage
    I hope this fanboyism isn't slow and sloppy, Harry. The typical Apple-worshipping journalist doesn't know to work the balls, but it's an important fact that shouldn't be neglected. When posting non-news on a credible mainstream media source and promoting it via your own account on non-news-for-nerds, dropping the fact that you once met Wozniak on a tour of a museum just isn't enough. You have to work the balls, too.
  • Dinaao (Score:5, Interesting)

    by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @04:19AM (#42080385)

    Dinaao Is Not An Apple One.

    I spoke with Steve Wozniak at the 30th anniversary of Apple held at the Computer History Museum - I asked him why the Apple One was so retarded. He really wasn't happy about that question. I then explained that I had built a Replica 1 and then written Dinaao to teach myself how the guts of the Apple One really worked, and had found that the input was limited to 60 characters a second, and the output as well even though the MOS 6502 CPU was running at one million clocks per second.
    Woz then explained that the Apple One was originally designed to be a TV teletype allowing deaf people to type to each other over a phone line. The current TV teletypes ran at 30 characters per second - his was twice as fast. It was a short time later that he was dragged to a local computer club meeting where someone was talking about these new microprocessors that just became available when he realized that rather than typing to a person, you could be typing to a program running on a microprocessor, and watch it respond on your television, all of which normal people could afford. That was how the Apple One was born.
    After getting this running, his friend Steve Jobs worked with him to start Apple, and he started using the Apple One to help design the Apple Two with color graphics so that you could play Brick-Out.
    If you want to play with a pretty nice Apple One analog - please download Dinaao off Sourceforge.net - works on Linux / MacOSX (get xcode which includes gcc) or any other posix OS. Unpack, run make, run dinaao, type "E000R", and you've got Woz Basic up and running. Works in a console. You can even cut and paste basic programs from web sites like this one. Hit F9 to exit (might need to move function keys in MacOSX out of the way).
    10 FOR I=1 TO 20:FOR J=1 TO I
    20 PRINTJ;:NEXT J:PRINT :NEXT I
    30 END
    Enjoy!

    • Re:Dinaao (Score:3, Insightful)

      by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @04:26AM (#42080399)

      In the picture, "AUTO 10,10" means every time you hit enter, it auto types the next line number ten more the the highest one. Hit Ctrl D to get it to stop. Woz basic expects an "END" statement to finish the program or else it's an error.

    • by girlinatrainingbra (2738457) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @05:34AM (#42080579)
      Cool. Very nice. Downloaded; maked (made?); run and "hello worlded". Pretty neat code. Now to look at the source and learn!

      Version 1.0, 2008-01-14 initial release
      ./dinaao replica1.bin
      Welcome to Dinaao.
      Written by John Gilbert.
      Hit F1 for Help, F9 to Exit, F12 to Reset.

      Loading replica13a.bin... -> 0xE000 - 0xFFFF
      Loading cffa1.bin... -> 0x9000 - 0xAFFF
      Loading cassette.bin... -> 0xC100 - 0xC1FF

      \
      E000R

      E000: 4C
      >10 PRINT "HELLO"
      >20 END
      >RUN
      HELLO
      • by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @04:10PM (#42083009)

        The code should be pretty readable, but please note: Dinaao was designed to run Apple One software, not be an emulator (yeah, I know - it's a weird distention, but it's not like any other "emulator" out there). It had to be multi-threaded so that the 6502 engine was not coupled to the input (so you can cut and paste a long programs and the code parser would eventually catch up). It also has a couple of trigger points where if the code hit those instructions and there was no input waiting in the buffer, the program would sleep. Also, I have timing information in the code but it's not used. This allows Dinaao to run as fast as possible until it needs input, then take ZERO real cpu cycles waiting for more keyboard input.
        The other difference from other "emulators" is that if Dinaao hits an instruction that it doesn't understand, it will print out the offending instruction and some register information and then exit. There's still some 6502 features that aren't included (like decimal math functions), but since I got the Woz monitor, Woz basic, and Krusader (an included and built in 6502 assembler) fully working, I've not found any original Apple One programs that use these instruction modes so I never bothered.

        If you want to really learn how the 6502 works, empty out the 6502 instructions in the CPU loop and start up the program. It will "crash" on each new instruction it sees. Add them back in as needed - about 30 instructions later the Woz monitor will give you a prompt. About 20 instructions more and you can get Woz basic running. Start up Krusader and after about 10 more instructions you'll probably never find an Apple One program that doesn't work. I've put in all of the 65C02 instructions (minus the unused decimal mode stuff) writing one-off test code as needed, but who knows if I got it right. I stopped working on it when it behaved the same as my Replica 1 (which I highly recommend getting if you want the real Apple One experience).

        If you want a truly insane learning project, replace the MOS 6502 instructions with Motorola 6800 ones and rewrite the Woz monitor. If you look at the original Apple One circuitry it has an entire section so that the 6800 CPU could used. I spoke with Jeff Raskin before he passed away, Steve Wozniak, and about ten other original Apple One owners and no one has ever heard of anyone that used this other CPU.

        Best of luck.
        John G.

        PS. Before the Apple One - a computer was a box with flashing lights and switches programed in machine codes by professionals and crazy hobbyists. Starting with and forever changed by the Apple One - a computer is an affordable box attached to television screen and a typewriter keyboard that can be used by anyone. We all owe Woz a great big thanks!

    • by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @06:44AM (#42080743)
      So instead of selling devices to the deaf, they decided to sell devices to retards instead.
  • by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @04:31AM (#42080409)

    that an old tool to work for now

    www.squidoo.com/dog-strollers3

  • by Anonymous Coward on Saturday November 24, 2012 @09:14AM (#42081105)
    I came here to comment on the "sexiness" of those polaroids. That is straight up geek porn! Being able to view an old computer with its cover off, exposing those HUGE capacitors... man, I have to have more,.... MORE!
  • by KagakuNinja (236659) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @02:02PM (#42082291)

    I have fond memories of me and a couple junior high school buddies hanging out at the Palo Alto Byte Shop. Playing BASIC Star Trek, typing random shit and seeing what happened ("df" means "disk format" in CP/M; they removed that program from the IMSAI), a bit of BASIC programming... I don't remember any of the computer brands, other than the iconic IMSAI, with the switches on the front panel (as seen in the movie War Games).

  • by gelfling (6534) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @05:05PM (#42083317) Homepage Journal

    Did they invent solder? Keyboards? Carbon?

  • by Tastecicles (1153671) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @06:23PM (#42083715)

    We're talking about two obsoleted technologies (breadboard computing and instamatic film) meeting to give us this bit of history. I don't know about anyone else, but while not overly significant, it is still pretty awesome. Think about where it came from as well. Triple whammy.

  • by sootman (158191) on Saturday November 24, 2012 @07:11PM (#42083947) Homepage Journal

    The first known instance of unboxing porn. :-)

  • by MatrixCubed (583402) on Monday November 26, 2012 @11:44AM (#42094201) Homepage
    That's a lot of Polaroids!

"Freedom is still the most radical idea of all." -- Nathaniel Branden

Working...